Escorial


Escorial
   On 10 August 1557, the feast day of St. Lawrence, Philip II of Spain vowed at the Battle of San Quentin that, if his troops emerged victorious against the French, he would build a monastery in the saint's honor. The Spaniards won the battle, an event that eventually led to the peace of Cateau-Cambrésis between France, England, and Spain (1559). Philip fulfilled his promise by building the Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial (beg. 1563). He charged Juan Bautista de Toledo with the task and, when Toledo died in 1567, his pupil Juan de Herrera took over the project, bringing it to completion in 1584. The complex includes a palace for the king, his family, and courtiers, a seminary, basilica, and royal crypt. Its gridlike design, punctuated by four towers at the corners, two campaniles, and the dome of the basilica, is thought by some to have been inspired by the grill of St. Lawrence's martyrdom. Others see the building's plan as a modernized version of the Temple of Solomon described by Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian of the first century. If this is the case, then the architecture would speak of Philip as the new Solomon, the biblical builder hailed for his wisdom. Philip brought a team of Italian masters to El Escorial to decorate the complex, among them Fabrizio Castello, Pellegrino Tibaldi, and Luca Cambiaso. The Spanish artists Juan Fernández de Navarrete and Alonso Sánchez Coello were also involved, as was El Greco.

Historical dictionary of Renaissance art. . 2008.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Escorial — Es*co ri*al, prop. n. [Prop. Sp. escorial, i. e., a hill or heap of rubbish, earth, and stones brought out of a mine, fr. escoria dross of metal, L. scoria, fr. Gr. ?. Cf. {Scoria}.] A palace and mausoleum of the kings of Spain, being a vast and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Escorial — (el) (en fr. l Escurial) anc. résidence des rois d Espagne, près du village de San Lorenzo del Escorial (prov. de Madrid), construite de 1563 à 1584. Palais, couvent et nécropole, ce quadrilatère sévère (208 m sur 162 m), en granit gris bleu, a… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Escorial — [es kôr′ē əl; ] Sp [ es΄kō̂ ryäl′] n. [Sp escorial, lit., place where a mine has been exhausted < escoria < L scoria, dross < Gr skōria, SCORIA] huge quadrangle of granite buildings near Madrid, built (16th cent.) by Philip II of Spain …   English World dictionary

  • Escorĭal — Escorĭal, el (Escurial), Stadt in der spanischen Provinz u. nordwestlich von Madrid, 2000 Ew.; besteht aus 2 Flecken, E. bajo im Thal u. E. de Arriba auf einem mit Kieferwaldung bedeckten Granitberge; bei letzterem steht das prächtige Luftschloß… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Escorial — (»Schlackenhaufen, Halde«, nach den Resten ehemaliger Bergwerke so benannt), Ortschaft in der span. Provinz Madrid, 52 km nordwestlich von Madrid, an der Spanischen Nordbahn, am Südabhang des Guadarramagebirges, in unfruchtbarer Gegend, besteht… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Escorial — Escoriāl, E. de abajo (spr. acho), Flecken in der span. Prov. Madrid, an der Sierra de Guadarrama, (1900) 1411 E. Dabei der von Philipp II. 1563 86 erbaute prachtvolle Klosterpalast E. oder San Lorenzo el Real, mit berühmter Bibliothek,… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • escorial — s. m. Terreno ou campo onde há escórias de metais; escoiral …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • Escorial — (izg. eskoriȃl) m DEFINICIJA dvorac SZ od Madrida (16. st.), bivša ljetna rezidencija španjolskih kraljeva s njihovim mauzolejom, crkvom i samostanom augustinaca (bogata knjižnica) …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • escorial — 1. m. Sitio donde se han echado o se echan las escorias de las fábricas metalúrgicas. 2. Montón de escorias …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Escorial — Das Wort Escorial stammt aus der spanischen Sprache und bedeutet Halde im Deutschen. Als Begriff bezeichnet Escorial: die Kloster und Schlossanlage, bekannt als Residenz Philipp II. von Spanien, siehe Real Sitio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Escorial — Escurial Pour les articles homonymes, voir Escurial (homonymie). 40° 35′ 21″ N 4° 08′ 54″ W …   Wikipédia en Français


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